2 PDF + 1 MP3 - Herbert Ingraham was born to Samuel and Ella Ingraham in Aurora, Illinois. He was the oldest of five, including Robert G. (1887), Solomon (1888), Myrtle (1892), and Edward Roy (1895). Both Robert and Roy would become composers as well. While Herbert's birth year is frequently shown as 1883, the 1900 census was very clear that he was born in July of 1881. Comparing the records. Poison Ivy is a 1992 American erotic thriller film directed by Katt Shea. It stars Drew Barrymore, Sara Gilbert, Tom Skerritt, and Cheryl Ladd. The original music score is composed by David Michael Frank. The film was shot in Los Angeles. It was nominated for the 1992 Grand Jury prize of Best Film at the Sundance Festival. Sunburns, poison ivy, acne, psoriasis, and as a hair rinse and facial astringent. A tall glass of lemon water upon waking is an excellent way to hydrate and cleanse the body ﬁrst thing in the morning. Fresh lemon in tea and green juice and added to salads, wraps, hummus, guacamole, and nori rolls is another great way to add this healing. Watching out for anthills, sharp sticks, and poison ivy. Refer to the photo below to help you iden-tify poison ivy, which is characterized by its branched three leaves. The oil contained in practi-cally all parts of the plant is poisonous to most people when it comes in contact with their skin. Equipment needed.
Poison Ivy Safety
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terrific fences in the world and run at breakneck speed. That we still breed a horse which can do this and continue steeplechasing for years shows that there is nothing really wrong with our stock, but the premature gelding of steeplechasers makes the test useless to breeders and it would be well if geldings were barred from competition in the Grand National just as they are barred from the Derby. In this way we could breed from our proved stayers and our soundest, most enduring stock, instead onetting it run to waste. In the human race outstanding aptitudes often come from families distinguished in a similar way; but this may be due to upbringing and early training, and we do find many instances when no aptitude is inherited either immediately or remotely. We also find all of a sudden a remarkable genius, mental or physical, springing up out of nothing at all, defying every opposing circumstance against its development with no history whatever of similar talent behind it, yet in spite of every effort of training and environment and money spent on trying to reproduce it again in the man's descendants, his genius generally dies with him. In fact very often his descendants are adversely affected by their efforts to live up to a standard entirely beyond their capacities and may even fall below the average. To sum up, figures are fixed units, livestock variable units. Even the apparently simple two added to another two in animals bred the same way, and which should, theoretically, be exact duplicates, cannot be relied on to make the expected four. Two and two do not always make four, but diverge irresponsibly into making all sorts of odd numbers. So all hard and fast rules and calcula tions must go by the board, and we return to the gamble we set out from.
FOOD AND POISON GAS-m By Dr. JOSEPH DOWGIALLO
PART V PROTECTION AND SECURITY OF FOOD AGAIN ST CONTAMINATION
is probably the most important question in connection with foodstuffs. It is. easy to carry out in a large majority of cases. For quite small quantities of food, many different materials or protective objects can be used. The perfect materials fo r protection are gl.ass and metal containers, such as sealed metal drums, boxes and tins, glass jars, glazed earthenware vessels and bottles with properly fitting stoppers. Tinfoil and silver paper, which protects tea, chocolate or cigarettes, are also very good if the contents are well packed. It should be noted that some metals will corrode in the presence of moisture and they should never be exposed to wet of any description. Wood is al so a good protection, especially sealed wooden barrels and boxes with all joints absolutely tight. All woods are not equally gas-resisting. It depends largely upon the wood fibres. Blister gas can penetrate wood to a depth of about 0.5 em., especially if the wood is soft, and, if not decontaminated, can penetrate deeper and become a further source of contamination. Hard woods, such as oak, teak and plywood, are the best. Resinous or damp wood absorb less blister gas than non-resinous or dry wood. The grain of the wood should be noted-vertical can be contaminated easier and deeper than horizontal. The surface is also important. A polished or even surface is far THI S
FOOD AND POISON GAS better protection than a dull, unfinished one. Wa% paint, and especially varnish, are also. quite effective. Gla2ed earthenware vessels or celluloid boxes or bakelite, and even waterproof c,ellophane properly sealed, a re quite good. Bitumen is good jf kept dry. Textiles, such as wool, cotton, sacking, canvas bags, etc., give very little protection, especially from liquid blister gas, because it soaks into the fabric and adheres to it. Smoke and volatile gases will adhere to the surface and thus contaminate the contents. Impregnated material, such as tarpaulin~ is good protection against poison gas but it is not foolproof with blister gas. It should be noted that oil impregnation (not varnish) of the material is rather dangerous, because the oil will absorb the poison and retain it for some considerable time, thereby causing further contamination. Rubber is not a good protective covering against liquid blister gas, which can penetrate in a short time (about half-hour), but is fairly good against other gases.· Specially treated anti-gas rubber .s, of course, very good. Leather can protect against non-persistent and the vapour of blister gas, but is no use against liquid blister gas, which can penetrate in from 15-30 minutes. WaXied cartons, cellophane paper and greaseproof pap,er are all good protection for non-persistent gases and the vapour of blister and smoke gases if they are kept dry. Non-impregnated paper is no protection. Large quantities of food stored in grain elevators, refrigerators, etc., are protected mainly by the security of their fastenings (doors and windows gasproof, etc.) and are separately dealt with fo r each particular case. The protection of Huge buildings, such as stores, factories, slaughterhouses, etc., must be more fully dealt with. The degree to which the buildings a re gas-proof bears greatly upon the danger of contamination. It is necessary to have a specially trained service as follows: Decontamination, rescue and spotting squads. Their task will be: (a) to be on the look-out for gas-bombs; (b) decontam inate immediately all dangerous places, craters, shell-holes, etc.; (c) close all food containers before contamination and open them after the danger is past; (d ) make a preliminary valuation and, if necessary, remove the contaminated food; (e) decontaminate when possible and destroy articles of food which are heavily contaminated; (f) bring immediate relief to persons or animals who have been poisoned. To revert to food protection, there are several points worth mentioning in this connection. The refrigerator provides perfect protection and the only precaution necessary is to make sure that all doors, windows and ventilators are securely fastened. In the case of grain elevators, it may not be possible to make them absolutely gas-proof but, fortunately, the contamination will be only superficial-not usually more than 3-5 cm., seldom more than 10 cm. It is more difficult to protect haystacks and hayricks; liquid gas will penetrate toa depth of 10-15 cm. (seldom more than 20 em.). . Cans of food, if efficiently sealed, cannot be contaminated. Protection of fields and pastures is impossible. Rapid decontamination is difficult. If left for the correct length of time they will decontaminate themselves. The. weather is also a good aid. Rain, wind and sun cause destruction of poison gas by evaporation or hydrolisation. Rain decomposes the poison compounds. Earth is a good protective material for many products.
THE VETERINARY JOURNAL Root vegetables can ,
rotected by a layer of earth 10-20 cm. deep.
Water contaminated by poison gas has usually an objectionable smell and will taste salty, acid or bitter, depending on the gas . used. Decontamination of water is carried out by boiling for not less than 1-2 hours. Water will also hydrolise some gases, e.g., chlorine, phosgene and partially mustard gas (0.7 per cent.). Small quantities of water contaminated by mustard gas can be filtered by a simple method, i.e., in a pail with a perforated botton put gauze folded 5-10 times, a layer of sand 10-20 em . deep and over this another layer of gauze folded 5-10 times, and run the water through this into another receptacle. After this fiIrtration, the water must be boiled. If there are spots of blister gas on the surface of the water these can be removed before filtering. Decontamination of water contaminated by arsenical gases is ryever certain and should always be done by an expert. In che1J1ical decontamination of water it is intended to neutralise the poison, blt the remnants of the chemical will often leave a bad taste. Although such water is not dangerous, it is best used for purposes other than drinking. Protection of pond water is impossible. Pond water is difficult to contaminate because a great deal of poison is necessary and liquid poison tends to fall to the bottom and is destroyed by hydrolisation or absorption into the weeds. However, certain parts of the pond may be dangerous, because the wind and waves will carry the poison to the edges, where it may remain for several days among the weeds, etc. The rapidity of decontamination depends on the type and quantity of poison, weather and presence of weeds, plants or mineral salts in the water. The danger becomes evident if the water is used for washing or when it is used for bathing and accidentally swallowed. Running water cannot be protected but it is very difficult to contaminate, because the current will carry the poison with it and quickly disperses and destroys it. The poison may be carried to the edges, where it will remain among the weeds, and care must be taken to note any oily spots, unusual smells, etc. 1£ the place is known to be contaminated, the water should be used 20-50 feet above the area. Open wells are very dangerous when contaminated and it is almost impossible to decontaminate them within a reasonable time. Even if this is done, there will always be an unusual smell or an objectionable taste. Decontamination takes from one to three months or more. It is not prudent to use such wells for several months and even afterwards it is necessary to examine the water expertly, especially if gases iri Group IV (arsenical, and compounds of heavy metals and phosphorous) are suspected. The quickest ~nethod of decontamination i5 to drain the well, refill and examine the water again, but very often the poisonous sediment is left. To avoid the possibility of contamination in a well it should be fitted with a wooden cover, topped with felt and padlocked. Artesian and Abyssinian wells, etc., are usually sufficiently well protected. For absolute protection the openings can be stopped 4P with cork and the ground around raised to a higher level with sand. The contamination of water in aqueducts is not easy, and is more likely to be of a bacteriological nature than a chemical one.
FOOD AND POISON GAS PART VI CLINICAL DIAGNOSI S AND ANATOMO-PATHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS OF POISONING IN THE DIGESTIVE ORGANS General Remarks
The delicate mucous membrane of the digestive tract is moist ' and possesses, numerous secretory glands, free sensory nerve endings and superficial blood capillaries; consequently, the tissues absorb poisons easily a nd react very quickly to them. Poison gas, after reaching the digestive tract, causes not only immediate signs of illness in the digestive organs but it can act indirectly on other organs, e.g., compounds of heavy metals, and especially phosphorus, act indirectly on the parenchymatous organs, kidneys, liver, heart and spleen, and often cause' very rapid changes, fatty degeneration, etc. When these poisons circulate through the bloodstream they cause a general organic disturbance. The changes are characteristic of each particular poison and are easy to identify. GROUP 1.-(a) Choking g.as,es. The clinical symptoms are represented as general distu rbance, listlessness, loss of appetite, colicy pains in the region of the stomach, thirst, sometimes vomiting, general debility and inertia. The poison sometimes acts simultaneously on the respi ratory organs and causes attacks of coughing and other funct ional disturbances. (b) Poisoning by so-called (( com~non action' gases, such as hydrocyanide (HeN) and carbon monoxide (CO) , are very rare and their use is doubtful, and, in the open air, impossible, because of their high volatility. After consuming food poisoned by HCN the fol1owing general symptoms will appear: visible irritation of mucous membrane, vomiting, respiratory disturbances, heavy breathing, convulsion s, cramp or tetanus, enlargement of the pupils, loss of consciousness and, in heavy cases, death usually within one hour. GROUP n.-Tear gases and chloropicrin evoke strong sensory nervous in'itation. The action, in consequence, is somewhat similar to that of the choking gases in Group I. Important signs of poisoning in the digestive tract are irritation of the senstive nerve endings, sometimes violent vomiting, congestion of the mucous membranes and copious salivation. It should be noted that chloropicrin, even after decomposing in the food, will cause symptoms of general disturbance. Even when the presence of the gas in the food does not cause symptoms, this does not mean that there will be no harm done to the organs. Pathological changes resulting from poisoning by Group II gases are similar to those of Group I , but they are present in a greater degree (congestion of the mouth and cedema of the mucous membranes, catarrh of the stomach an d other par ts of the digestive tract). Contamination by chloropicrin gas gives rise to characteristic brownish stains of the mucous membranes of the stomach caused by combination with the ~moglobin in the blood. Poisoning by smoke gases causes the following symptoms: salivation, restlessness, vomiting, lack of appetite, painful colic, constipation, sometimes diarrhcea, irritation or nervous symptoms, trembling, faintness , sometimes attacks of fury,. transitory paralysis or epilepsy.
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GROUP IlL-Mustard gas has a burning or blistering action and is also a poison of the vascular system. There may be no clinical signs in the first few hours but eventually there will be vomiting. Next day there will be listlessness, colicy pains, congestion and great pain in the stomach, rigor of th e head and neck and coma. Ulcerated spots in the mouth and necrosis of the mucous membranes may also be present. Anatomo-pathological changes are : swelling, congestion, subsequent inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth, tongue, and other parts of the digestive tract ; ha!morrhagic inflammation of the stomach and intestines, necrosis and ulceration represented by large or small spots and spreading of the swelling. GR OUP IV contains compounds of arsenic headed by Lewisite; compounds of heavy metals, lead, tin, etc., and phosphorus. All these compounds are extremely dangerous and they persist fo r a long time, and even if broken up their residue remains poisonous (arsenic). Clinical symptoms of poisoning through the digestive tract are : depression, active disturbance, serious external injury as from mustard gas and also the presence of the arsenic. It is well known that l00-IS0 mg. of arsenic will cause death; 0.1 gms. will kill living organisms within a few hours. Besides the usual symptoms of depression, there will be colicy pain, sometimes coughing, violent vomiting, swelling of the mucous membranes and congestion with lividness, restlessness, panting, rapid hea rt action, nervous and physical disturbance, general debility, fainting, loss of sense of balance, and, afterwards, extreme weakness, coma and death.
Lewisite is a strong poison both in its initial blistering actions and later effects caused by the poisonous arsenical residue. After absorption into the bloodstream it causes changes in the liver, spleen and kidneys. T he action of Lewisite is rapid, much more rapid than mustard gas, and causes more serious injuries to the tissues. The general symptoms produced are like those of mustard gas but with deeper tissue action, not only in the mucous membranes but also in the underlying tissues. (N ote.-A drop of mustard gas can penetrate the human skin entirely within 2.0 minutes, whereas Lewisite will only take about five minutes.) Fatal doses by the digestive tract are less than by the skin. The blisters after eating contaminated food are extremely painful and the symptoms appear very quickly. Lewisite poisoning causes deep ulceration and necrosis of the tissues of the digestive organs. There may be serious inflammation of the mucous membranes and underlying tissues, and purulent inflammation extending to the deeper layers, with a tendency to bleed. I
Pathological changes are : inflammation of the stomach and inte?tines, and dark red colour or grey spots, especially in the la rge intestines. There may be a residue of heavy metals in the food content of the stomach. After arsenical poisoning, at post-mortem the mucous membranes of the stomach are covered with mucus and there is a distinct smell of garlic. In
FOOD AND POISON GAS phosphorus poisoning the mucous memBrane 0 .£ the stomach adherent mucus, which is very difficult to separate.
After poisoning by any of the gases in this group (compounds of arsenic and phosphorus and heavy metals) fatty degeneration is marked. This is partiCUlarly apparent with phosphorus. It appears very quickly, sometimes only a few hours after poisoning. .
The symptoms of poisoning after eating contaminated food depend upon the type and quantity of poison used, which may act directly at the site of contamination or indirectly on certain organs or on the system in general. Choking gases, after immediate action upon the digestive tract, attack the respiratory organs. t hloropicrin acts upon the plasma of the cells. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisons the blood by combining with hremoglobin. Hydrocyanide ( HCN) acts upon the blood and central nervous system and on the respiratory or vasomotor cen'tres . Mustard gas poisons the blood vessels and also the plasma cells. Phosphorus and heavy metal compounds act upon the parenchromatous organs. First Aid Treatment
The following indications can serve as a base for first-aid in cases of poisoning by the digestive tract: ( 1) Removal and immediate destruction of the remainder of the contaminated food. (2) Thorough cleaning of the mouth and rinsing with a weak solution of bicarbonate of soda- soda 1-2 per cent. (3) Use, if possible, of the stomach pump or the giving of an emetic. The la tter should only be given if the patient IS 111 a good state of health and the heart is strong. (4) Plenty of water should be given with a solution of sodium carbonate (0.$-1 per cent. ). For poisoning by arsenical compounds magnesia will be beneficial. (5) ,T he patient must have plenty of rest and quiet, and a sedative should be given if necessary. In the latter case morphine or chloral hydrate are contraindicated when deali.ng with choking gases. Treatment will depend on the severity of the poisoning and great care must be taken (a) to regulate the digestive organs by a non-irritant mild purgative, such as sodium sulphate, (b) to regulate the heart action with camphor oil, caffein, valerian and sometimes morphine. (3) See that the patient is kept warm. Poisoning by carbon monoxide and hydrocyanide can be treated by oxygen inhalation, with G0 2 , the stomach pump and warm covering. To regulate the heart, lobelin, caffein or camphor should be given. Treatment must be immediate and direct. Further treatment will depend upon the symptoms. Sometimes the results of first-aid treatment will be poor, for, although the immediate symptoms may be relieved, secondary changes may occur in essential organs.